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Pulsation Dampeners - Hydropneumatic Device for Acceleration Head Pulsation Prevention

Hydropneumatic Acceleration Head Reduction Pulsation Dampeners

1. The Purpose of the designs:
To minimize the mass of liquid that has to be accelerated when flow velocity changes.

2. Characteristics of the designs:
Mountable in any orientation such that the device is connectable directly to the suction check valve beneath the pump or directly to any vertical or horizontal discharge check valve; minimizing the length of any liquid column mass that will experience velocity change. Pump connection being separate from system connection so that no acceleration head changes occur due to reciprocation within one single “T” piece connection.

3. Applications:
A. The reduction in drive energy costs required by any pump.
B. The reduction in pipe diameter and schedule wall thickness costs of any pipe system
C. The decrease in fatigue and increase in safety of all pressure piping systems.
D. The increase in accuracy and automatability of all pressure and flow control instruments .
E. Increase in rotating equipment life and MTBF.
F. Reduction in service down time.

BY

The reduction of the residual pulsation, after the installation of an acceleration head “dampener”, to an allowable percentage of theoretical steady state condition; for protecting against:
I. Pump and drive train parts damage 12 %
II. Premature lift of relief valve or accelerated fracture of overload burst disk 9 %
III. Damage to pressure indicating instruments 6 %
IV. Incomplete or varying atomization from nozzles 5 %
V. Poor static mixing of multiple flow streams 4 %
VI. Pulsed magnetic field flow meter inaccuracy 3 %
VII. Causing a paddle wheel type meter from surging 2 %
VIII. False readings from a turbine or “screw” type meter 1.5 %
IX. Over excitation of vibrating tubes in coriolis type meters 1.0 %
X. Disruption of the rate at which vortices are created in a shedding meter 0.75%
XI. Variations which prevent a Delta P orifice meter from working 0.01%
The volume of a dampener for use in the same system, either to protect the pump, or to protect a meter could be 100 times larger than to protect the pump. One calculation does not fit all.

ALSO

The pulsation “signature” of each type of pump is different. Economies are achieved by calculating the require pulsation dampener volume according to the pump type, (as well as the required smoothness from above). A rough guide follows to the relative “pulsatiousness” by pump type, with the least pulsatious being a Multi Stage Turbine being 1, and at the most pulsatious extreme, single cylinder diaphragm head metering pump:

A. at elevated pressure
B. pumping a warm and compressible liquid
C. With a starved near vapor pressure suction supply.
D. At low volumetric efficiency (Lost volumetric Efficiency)
E. Into a short pipe system, that is of large diameter, -- being 1000.

ROUGH COMPARATOR GUIDE:
A Centrifugal pump of more than 5 cutwaters at 1500 rpm or more 5
A Vane pump with 7 or more vanes at 750 rpm or more 10
A Progressive Cavity pump with long “worm” 15
A Gear pump with 11 teeth at 875 rmp 20
A Septuplex plunger pump at 400 rpm, pumping cold water at 950 psi 40
An Internal Gear pump with 5 teeth at 200 rpm 60
A Tri-Lobe pump at 75 rpm 100
An Air Operated Double End Diaphragm Pump (an AODeD) 200
A Two Shoe Hose Pump pumping a high viscosity liquid 300
A Cam actuated “lost motion” pump at half stroke 400
A Single Packed Plunger at 15,000 psi 500
The double layer PTFE diaphragm pump described above 1000

Form these comparisons we find that a pulsation dampener for the same level of smoothness requirement in one pumping system may need to be 200 times larger than for another type of pumping system.
CLEARLY THERE ARE CONSIDERABLE POTENTIAL COST SAVINGS BY ADDRESSING THE DETAILS OF A SYSTEM .


When the wide disparity of necessary pulsation Dampener volume, resulting from the system pump type, is considered in combination with the necessary differing smoothness requirements, according to the system component that needs protection, it is possible for a dampener to differ by a multiple of 2000 times, for two very similar systems.
THEREFORE ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL.


NEITHER DOES ONE TYPE FIT ALL.

4. Dampener Design Variations
A. For chemicals and process pump systems. Having a membrane of PTFE .
B. For carcinogenic and pyroforic systems. Having secondary containment sealing and telltale hazard leak alert from between primary and secondary backup layer diaphragms.
C. For sludges and slurries. Having a clear unobstructed flow path direct from in to out through a dilating tube.
D. For dual purposes of pressure pulsation interception and flow fluctuation prevention. Having an elastomeric bladder separator designed to contain the system, said bladder being of large diameter relative to the inlet and the outlet points. Providing high frequency transient pressure spike dissipation, and volume accumulation.
E. Small diameter cylindrical shells of stainless steel containing a gas bag separator. Small diameter enables low cost at super and ultra pressures; specifically for saline environment corrosion resistance and 10,000 psi through 45,000 psi offshore oil industry deep well injection systems

The Author has specialized in the hydropneumatic device field since 1963, and holds some two dozen patents covering the design of 18 ranges of products. All of which product ranges are commercially available from various licensees.

Pulsation Dampeners - Snubbing, Surge Suppression and Shock Absorbing
Hydropneumatic Device for Acceleration Head Pulsation Prevention
No Moving Parts and Hydropneumatic Pulsation Filters
Flow Fluctuation / Suction Systems - Negative Pressure Pulsation / Supply Lines
Pressure Pulsation Pulse Signatures
Pressure Pulsation Dampeners for Transients and their Interception
Pulsation Dampeners for Amplitude of Pressure Wave Spikes
Pulsation Dampeners and Pump Vendor Responsibilities
Acceleration Head / Pressure that a System Could Create
Pulsation Dampening - Flow Smoothness Requirements
Pulsation Dampener Quick Release Manifolds / Flow Divider Manifolds


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Click on the picture of the damper below to see how it works and is assembled, animated.
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