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Pulsation Dampener - Gas Bladder Flow Fluctuation Accumulator

PipeGuard Elastomer Gas Bag Dampener/ Flow Fluctuation Accumulator
CAUTION: Generally called a "dimensional drawing" this is a PulseGuard viewsheet. The length to diameter ratio(s) are not to the same scale.

THE PIPEGUARD RANGE.
SINGLE CONNECTION VERSIONS ARE FOR FLOW FLUCTUATION REDUCTION. PIPEGAURD DAMPENERS however HAVE 2 CONNECTION, either direct in, or in piping base blocks, AND DAMPEN TO SOME EXTENT, BUT NOT AS PROPERLY AS THE PULSEGUARD Inc. pipehugger range of LARGE DIAMETER DAMPENERS. click here to GOTO essentials.txt

The benefit of the PIPEGUARD "dampeners" is that being small diameter, although this of itself reduces the dampening efficiency, PipeGuards are lower cost, particularly for higher pressures, WHERE THE PRESSURE SHELL HAS TO BE STAINLESS STEEL FOR EXTERNAL CORROSION RESISTANCE REASONS. Where SS externals not required click here to go to PipeHugger.

1. Where the flow fluctuation accumulator or pulsation dampeners is 8" diameter and larger the liquid end is closed with a 2:1 SE head, see details top right.

2. Where the flange connections required have an OD the same or less than the dampener liquid end OD flange is integral with the dampener end.
Threaded stud bolt holes are provided on the same pcd as an ANSI flange. See detail top left.

3. Where the required flange is slightly larger than the damper end, and time allows, an oversized flange matching end may be provided with the benefit of greater compactness (than a flange welded on). See detail top center.

2. & 3. above are available with flange port threaded F NPT or F BSP

PIPEGUARD Low Pressure.
The PipeGuard L/P series, where large enough may have the features 1,2,3.

PIPEGUARD SLIMLINE.
The PipeGuard "SlimLine" series do not have features 2 & 3 above.

FLOW THROUGH PIPING BASE BLOCKS
Replace a "T". Flow through Piping Base Blocks, shown bottom right beneath the pulsation dampener drawing, are available to fit all items with features 2 or 3 above. Piping base blocks cause the dampener version of this PipeGuard flow fluctuation accumulator, to have not only the ability to address higher frequency pressure pulsation, at moderate frequencies, but also to have better internal agitation for flushing, and more constant temperature. Pulsation Dampeners are released from their piping bases which remain part of the pipe system - keeping pipe system integrity - and the dampener capsule is replaced in the shortest possible down time. System flushing of crud before startup, and hydro testing are all performed without the damper capsule being prejudiced - replaced with a bolt on by-pass block.

DIRECT PORTED FLOW THROUGH
PIPEGUARD - Pig/"TW" shown in details section, center, may be twin port threaded, + "Ls" for welding into the pipe "Type TW+W", or plus Flanges "Type TW+Flg." These Pulsation Dampeners are also available in the high pressure series with "Hubs" "Type TW+H".

SUPER-PRESSURE and ULTRA-PRESSURE
Generally Super-Pressure and Ultra-Pressure pulsation dampeners are direct ported. The best configuration is with MALE Autoclave or similar connections. The nitrogen fill valve, is often a matter of customer preference, and is user specified. Pre-Filling with nitrogen is mode complex, please click here to GOTO www.pulse-guard.com/pulsation-dampeners- bladder/installation-maintenance/dampener-pre-fill-p4.html & equivalent PDF

Low, suction, negative, sub atmospheric, pressure pulse dampener design using A membrane aka n2 bladder, elastomer gas bag, nitrogen sac, air balloon

With liquid outside any of those membranes, and therefore having to have a Corrosion resistant, to the process liquid, pressure bottles' housing, vessel shell, Body part. To act as - aka low discharge pressure, or suction flow acceleration head Reducer "dampner" - "bottle", or fluctuation accumulator for a pump.

Construction, having:

1. Membrane, dampener bladder elastomer
a. Epdm, nitrile, hypalon, fluorocarbon or any of 20 other elastomers .
b. Said elastomeric part having been cross-linked by temperature, using cross linking plasticizer, that does not contain sulfur nor leach out.
c. With a surface area in the order of 7% less than the vessel housing against which it will be expanded by a decrease of liquid pressure / increase of gas volume - which feature prevents undue stretching.
d. Membrane (c. Above) provided with means to prevent the extrusion thereof into port or ports provided for liquid flow. Said prevention of extrusion provided by parts aka "anti-extrusion plate".
e. The anti-extrusion plate located and attached to said membrane in such a manner that flexing movement of membrane does not pull on nor cause the plate to hang loose, and so move off centre line.
f. Said damper anti-extrusion plate also prevented from allowing premature liquid port closure; such anti-premature closure means provided by "tension webs" on pre-fill side of molding. Tension webs hold bladder center concave to the liquid side providing a stabilizing "nest" for the plate.
g. Optionally: the possibility of bladder membrane being damaged by forcing against the gas pre-fill port being prevented by a conical perforated member attached to the inside of the header plug
h. Pulsation dampeners bladder periphery sealably located within a groove within damper header/gas end plug inner side circumference.
i. Peripheral location of said membrane on the header end plug in such a method that by means of an integral corner filling ring, folding in of this gas bag is prevented from tearing the bag wall on the header plug inner rim.

2. Pressure bottles' housing / vessel for pulsation dampener - bottle "snubber" pulsation suppression device - accumulator:
a. Comprising three parts, a damper "body" cylinder with one end integral or otherwise permanently closed, and having the opposite end of said cylinder open, then sealably closed by a header end plug of generally 3.5 times the thickness of the cylinder wall.
b. Said dampner cylinder wall thickness determined by the formula :-

design pressure x internal radius
thickness = ----------------------------------------------------------
allowable working stress x factor ( - 0.6 design pressure)

dampener design pressure being established by an addition, to max working pressure, of 10% - on the basis that a direct acting rv set pressure is 10% above max working pressure. Plus that said rv has a 15% accumulation pressure to fully open. *

in which the factor above is determined by the degree of surity of the cylinder wall being perfect, for example: a "snubber" seamless wall of hot rolled or drawn pipe, a punch forged cup, a forged billet machine bored to form a hollow, the factor is 1

a "suppression device" cylinder formed by any longitudinal welding or joining method the factor is 0,7 where there is a longitudinal joint that has been certified as free of all imperfections by x-ray, the factor may be 0,9

said "allowable working stress" for the dampner material being determined by the lesser of yield strength x 0,625 , or the ultimate tensile strength x 0,25. no allowable working stress shall be determinable unless the ductility of the material and any jointing is at least 20% elongation at break. said dampener jointing procedure shall have been proven by root, side, and cap bend tests. further assurance of a jointing method may also be indicated by x-ray, but failure to pass tight radius bend tests is the only acceptable criteria for application to dampner manufacture because they are by definition for a cyclic stress duty, hence ductility for the avoidance of work hardening is of paramount importance. *
nota bene : application of the European static pressure vessel weld procedures which allow only 14% ductility, and qualification by x-ray alone, is not safely useable in cyclic duty dampfner manufacture. *

c. Retention, against dampener internal pressure, of said end plug within said cylinder, by means that can not be removed without first the depressurization of the cylinder; aka "tamper proof means". preferably said tamper-proof means being a segmental lock ring in a groove that is of a depth into cylinder wall of near 0,45 of the cylindrical wall thickness, groove beginning at a distance in from cylinder end face of 1,4 x wall thickness, and being 0,8 wide

d. Said damper tamper proofing means so arranged that the seal of sealably located end plug will cause the escape of the seal at a pressure above 4x design pressure, and below destruction pressure - thusly ensuring
"fail safe" *
goto "the pulseguard damper safety difference" .

e. Having pulsation dampener pre-fill cushion gas filling and venting point that enables both operations without the use of any special tools. typically said filling and venting being operable to open and close with a 3/4" af wrench.

f. Said end plug of the dampener acting as gas end of housing, manufactured from stainless steel to sa 240 grade 316/316l but containing no "titanium kill". Or appropriate corrosion resistant material to customer specification.

g. Integral to cylinder end piece being connectable to the system liquid to be dampened, inlet and outlet means adaptable to the separation between said inlet and said outlet.

Generally:
a. Dampeners as shown in the accompanying cross sectional / cut view
b. This pulsation suppression device bearing a stainless steel data plate, stamped with the vessel / shop / work order number, that enables the traceability to file containing all materials and physical property certification.

Features:
a. Sufficient compressible gas volume of the damper to enable the discharge from a specific pump to deliver its liquid flow in a fluctuating manner without generating not more than a specified amount of acceleration head
b. So arranged that - without additional cost - pressure pulsation is intercepted by the dampers in order to isolate the forcing action of a pump, or valve, from the acoustic response of a system to the residual pressure change.
c. Improved dampener in place flushibiliy, greater first in first out performance for more constant temperature, more suitability for fluids that require constant agitation.
d. Also for suction mass acceleration head loss, and preventing negative pressure spikes from instantaneous suction valve opening, from traveling the suction supply line.

Pulsation Dampeners with Elastomeric Membranes or Flexible Tubes
Precharge Gas in Elastomer Bladder Type
Viewsheets:
Gas Bladder Flow Fluctuation Accumulator
Integral Flange Face / O Ring Piping Base
Stainless Steel Flow Fluctuation Accumulator
Plastic Pulse Damper with Co-ax Option


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Click on the picture of the damper below to see how it works and is assembled, animated.
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